Access to reproductive health care

You have the right to access reproductive and sexual health care services and the necessary medical treatment in a timely manner. The State must ensure that you have equal access to state-paid medical services.

Access to medical treatment

You have the right to access the health care services you need for the protection of your sexual and reproductive health. The medical services and treatment must be available in a timely manner. Your rights as a patient are set out in Estonian Law of Obligations. Your right to access healthcare without discrimination on ground of gender is provided in the Gender Equality Act. It is prohibited to discriminate you on ground of your race, colour of skin or ethnicity when accessing healthcare. Your right to equally access and to obtain in a timely manner, those general health care services to which you are entitled under Estonian law is part of the human right to health.

Spheres of medical assistance & State funding

In the context of reproductive and sexual health, you have the right to receive medical treatment: 

  • for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection and AIDS

Access to the reproductive and sexual health care system does not mean that the State has to provide all medical treatment free of charge. Taking into account its financial resources and other aspects, the State may decide the types of medical treatment services that it may fully or partially finance. The types of health care services that are state-funded, and the conditions and the extent to which such funding applies, are set out in the Health Insurance Act. 

example In Estonia the state fully finances the medical insurance for pregnant women. 

The state has to ensure that the medical services available are safe and of good quality. 

Information about reproductive and sexual health

Access to reproductive and sexual health care is closely connected and, to a large extent, depends on the information you receive about the state of your health and the medical treatment you need. Read more about access to information about your reproductive and sexual health

What human rights violation may there be?

If you do not have access to the reproductive and sexual health care services you need, or they are of poor quality and not available in a timely manner, your right to health may be violated. In extreme situations, a lack of adequate medical care can lead to a violation of the right to life.

Since aspects of your reproductive and sexual health are closely linked to your private life, such as your right to privacy or your choice to become a parent, this may also lead to a violation of your right to a private life.

If medical treatment is denied only because you belong to a group with certain characteristics, associated with your gender, gender identity, race, origin, religious beliefs, sexual orientation or other similar grounds, it violates the prohibition on discrimination.


Last updated 22/10/2020